15 was created for this study. There were 31 operating rooms among the respondents (n=31), and the response rate was 35 %. Conclusions / Results: Operating room staff has lack of radiation knowhow and they need more education in radiation protection. They know that the use of protective shields and short fluoroscopy time decrease the radiation dose, but other ways to optimize the doses are not well known. Radiographers work as a radiation user in operating rooms e.g. in UK, which could be one of the solutions in Finland, too. It’s important that operating room staff has ability to apply their knowledge about radiation safety to practice. 5.22. Patient information in radiological examinations - the research and development process Presenter: Leila Ukkola, Oulu University Hospital, Finland Authors: Leila Ukkola, Heljä Oikarinen, Anja Henner Introduction: Each radiation examination should be justified: the benefit should be greater than the expected harm caused by radiation. The patient must be involved in the process of justification; in fact, informed consent is part of shared decision-making. However, information in connection with radiation examinations is usually limited. The personnel’s knowledge related to the doses and risks of radiation is often incomplete, the units describing the dose are complicated and the language used can be difficult. The International Atomic Energy Agency has pointed out that patient information should be improved. This research and development process concerning patient information in connection with radiological examinations was performed in the Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oulu University Hospital. The purpose of the process is to find out the experiences and expectations of referring practitioners, adult patients, paediatric patients (or their parents), and radiation users concerning the information prior to radiological examinations using ionising radiation. The aim is to clarify the contents of information and the responsibilities involved and to enhance the practice of informed consent and safety culture in radiology. Methods: The patients were interviewed using a questionnaire, while parents of paediatric patients and referring practitioners completed selfadministered questionnaires. A questionnaire was also developed for the staff of the radiology department. Results: The information received by the patients or parents of paediatric patients is inadequate and the patients wish to receive diverse information from different sources. Referring practitioners inform their patients irregularly, but they recognise their responsibility in this task. In conclusion, information for the patients in connection with radiological examinations seems to be insufficient. The final results of the process can be utilised for recommendations in order to develop patient information 5.23. A Study on the film analysis of the Digital wireless detector according to the dose increase and the location variation Presenter: Yu Young Eun, Jeonbuk university hospital, South Korea Authors: Yu Young Eun, Ko Ju Young Introduction: Lately, through the wireless LAN communication (IEEE 802,11a/b/gn) function and thereof, the digital wireless portable detector has been developed to provide more convenience and we can get the digital radiation image faster and more easily. Film/ screen method has approx. 10 1.5(1~30) variation range, while the digital detector has 104 (1~10000)variation range, so that there isn't much resolution difference per dose variation, which can be a factor of the exposure dose increases. Also, intended was the provision of the proper guidelines of the digital wireless detectors for the emergency and the critical patients by evaluating the influences on the film resolution of the focus and the grid central displacement per the portable characteristics and the location displacement within the detector. Methods: In this experiment I used the SIMAZU company's Elmo-T6 Digital Mobile X-ray system and e’Tor (14×17“ Wireless detector), ANTI-SCATTER GRID-10:1 (200 lines/Inch) F,D 130cm Inter-spacer AL, Chest & head phantom, and achieved per dose increase Results: On the one hand, I could feel the rough texture in the low dose of 0.5mAs in the film variation per dose increase and perceived visually the film difference of the proper dose 1~2mAs; on the other hand in the case of 3mAs, I perceived the low contrast due to the saturation phenomenon in lung area. The image J program used histogram, surface plot, and the plot profile analysis results show that, as the location displacement, the focus and grid, and the head phantom center increase. 5.24. Dose optimization in imaging of Young Scoliosis patients Presenters: Minna Tikkanen, Mari Parkkinen, Oulu University Hospital, Finland Authors: Minna Tikkanen, Mari Parkkinen Anja Henner Introduction: Scoliosis means a back that curves like an "S" or a "C." It may or may not be noticeable to others. While small curves generally do not cause problems, larger curves can cause discomfort. Scoliosis is not a disease, but rather it is a term used to describe any abnormal, sideways curvature of the spine. Scoliosis most typically occurs in individuals 10 to 18 years old and is often detected by school screenings or regular physician visits but there are also younger patients. Most of the scoliosis patients are young girls. Due to the age and long treatment period with several x-rays it is important optimize the dose carefully. Methods: Already in 1995 the grid was moved away and the scoliosis xrays were taken with air gap of 25 cm. The image receptor to focus distance increased from 170 cm to 200 cm and focus size was changed from 1,2mm to 0,6 mm. Later with CR system kVp was increased from 63kV to 90 kV and tube current decreased from 64 mAs to 6 mAs. Since 2010 DR from Fuji was installed. Now 90 kV is still in use, but mAs varies form 0.8 mAs to 3,2 mAs. Image quality was analyzed by pediatric radiologists. Results: The Entrance surface dose (ESD) was decreased in 1995 from 1,31 mGy to 0,16 mGy with CR. With DR system mean ESD is 0,033mGy (range 0,017 mGy-59,9 mGy). In the latest data patients’ weight varied between 33kg-80 kg and height from 130 cm to 169 cm. There is no anti-scatter grid in use sin scoliosis imaging with DR system and the air ga is only 10 cm. Image quality is still good enough according to pediatric radiologists. First x-rays from scoliosis is taken with lower kV and higher mAs but next ones with higher (90kV). If possible the projection is taken posterior – anterior (pa) and the breasts are protected with lead shields. Added filtration is 0,1 mmCu+1mmAl and focal spot is 0.6 mm. 5.25. Mobile chest radiographs without grid Presenter: Teemu Hyppänen, HUS Medical Imaging Center, Finland Author: Teemu Hyppänen Introduction: Imaging chest radiographs without grid is a quite new method. However it is a technique which is quickly expanding in mobile xray imaging. Without grid imaging technique can save patient dose multiple times. Chest radiographs without grid is in its most beneficial use when imaging intensive care patients. They are x-rayed often so the multiple dose save is utilized many times. As major drawbacks it cannot be used with large sized patients and the technique is dependent on certain x-ray equipment. In Switzerland they have also started to use without grid technique in native abdomen, pelvis and lumbar spine radiographs. In Finland chest radiographs without grid are in use with at least ten mobile x-ray systems. With those systems most of the chest radiographs are taken without grid. As thorax is the most popular x-ray examination this technique gives great opportunities on optimizing patient dose. The method has also been used with fixed x-ray systems. Methods: This presentations aim is to review the technique to take mobile chest radiographs without grid. Assets and issues of the technique will be explained on the radiographer’s point of view. The dose saving is demonstrated with a dose collection. Results: Without grid technique has many practical use assets as well as it saves patient dose. As limitations it cannot be used with large-sized patients and the detector has to be enough sensitive to take diagnostic radiographs. At this time there aren’t many detectors in the market that are enough sensitive for without grid imaging. Considering populations without grid technique can save patient dose huge amounts as its use spreads around the world. 6. EBR 6.1. Self-assessment of clinical image quality in plain radiography: an evidence-based practice for radiographers Presenter: Niina Kärnä, Kanta-Häme Central Hospital, Finland Authors: Kärnä Niina, Aakula U.-M., Metsälä E.
ISRRT | Book Of Abstracts
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